LONDON - Tower of London

La maison du docteur..

In the early 1080s, William the Conqueror began to build a massive stone tower at the centre of his London fortress. Nothing like it had ever been seen before.

Through the centuries that followed, successive monarchs added to the fortifications. This short history charts the different stages of its construction and explains its role as fortress, palace and prison. - See more at: http://www.hrp.org.uk/TowerOfLondon/stories/buildinghistory/#sthash.DTaCQMLQ.dpuf
A building history - In the early 1080s, WIlliam the Conqueror began to build a massive stone tower at the center of his London fortress. Nothing like it had ever been seen before.
Through the centuries that followed, successive monarchs added to the fortifications. This short history charts the different stages of its construction and explains its role as fortress, palace and prison.
The Tower of London has had many varied roles but it is its function as State prison that lingers in the popular memory.

Prisoners at the Tower were not ordinary offenders. Accused of treason, their offences included:

• trying to kill or depose the monarch
• helping rebels or foreign enemies
• writing or speaking against the monarch
• acting against the interests of the State, including counterfeiting coins

Tower prisoners ranged from monarchs to commoners and although popular myth regards imprisonment in the Tower as a death sentence, reality suggests otherwise. Only 22 executions have ever taken place within the Tower of London and the majority of Tower prisoners sentenced to death met their fate elsewhere. - See more at: http://www.hrp.org.uk/TowerOfLondon/stories/buildinghistory/prison#sthash.cIxHRhkf.dpuf
The Tower of London has had many varied roles but it is its function as State prison that lingers in the popular memory. Prisoners at the Tower were not ordinary offenders. Accused of treason, their offences included : 
-trying to kill or depose a monarch -helping rebels or foreign enemies -writing or speaking against monarch -acting against the interests of the State, including counterfeiling coins. 
Tower prisoners rangers from monarchs to commoners and although popular myth regards imprisonment in the Tower as a death sentence, reality suggests otherwise. Only 22 executions have ever taken place within the Tower of London and the majority od Tower prisoners sentenced to death met their fate elsewhere. 
The Salt Tower -  Meet the ghosts of prisoners held here and see their graffiti on the walls.
Medieval palace - The Medieval Palace at the Tower of London contained fabulous interiors used by medieval kings and queens during their frequent but short visits to their most important fortress. 
Fusilier Museum - The Fusilier museum tells the story of a British army regiment, formed at the Tower of London in 1685 by King James II. The museum is housed in a building originally built as army Officers' quarters. The building still houses the Royal Regiment of Fusiliers' Regimental Headquarters an dthe Officers' Mess, which is used for formal dinners and ceremonial occasions. 
Chapel of St Peter ad Vincula - Historical documents refer to St Peter's as a Royal Chapel as early as the 12th Century. Today it is a Chapel Royal and it is a 'Royal Peculiar' directly under the jurisdiction of the Queen. It is the parish church to HM Tower of London. Three queens of England : Anne Boleyn, Catherine Howard and Jane Grey, en the remains of two saints of the Roman Catholic Church, Sir Thomas More and John Fisher, are buried in the Chapel's environs. The Chapel Royal also has many monuments, some of exceptional quality, which commemorate officers and residents of the Tower who worshipped here. It remains a place of worship for the Tower's community of 150 or so residents, as well as many from outside. 
The crown Jewels - (no pictures allowed) Although the tradition of coronation is well over 1000 years old, the Crown Jewels at the Tower are rather more modern. Almost everything in the Jewel House was made after 1660, for a very good reason - the earlier crowns, orbs and sceptres had been destroyed following the abolition of the monarchy in 1649.
Coronation regalia at Westminster Abbey - Until 1649, the coronation regalia were all kept at Westminster Abbey, the coronation church since 1066. As these sacred objects could not leave the abbey, kings and queens had their own personal regalia made to wear and use during their reign. Often, they were buried with their personal crown and sceptres. 
Tower Bridge - London Bridge was originally the only crossing for the Tames. It took 8 years, 5 major contractors and the relentless labour of 432 construction workers to build Tower Bridge. Two massive piers were sunk into the river bed to support the construction an dover 11 000 tons of steel provided the framework for the Towers and Walkways. This framework was clad in Cornish granite and Portland stone to protect the underlying steelwork and to give the Birdge a more pleasing appearance. 
When it was built, Tower Bridge was the largest and most sophisticated bascule bridge ever completeted. Today, the bascules are still operated by hydraulic power, but since 1976 they have been driven by oil electricity rather than steam. 
East Wall Walk - Explore the massive defensive inner curtain wall and the four towers. 
The massive defensive inner curtain wall and the four towers : the Salt, the Broad Arrow, the Constable and the Martin Tower. This huge stone encirclement, defended by eight mural towers, was part of Henry III's refortification of the castle on the mid-13th century.
(c) Chavanitas
In the early 1080s, William the Conqueror began to build a massive stone tower at the centre of his London fortress. Nothing like it had ever been seen before.

Through the centuries that followed, successive monarchs added to the fortifications. This short history charts the different stages of its construction and explains its role as fortress, palace and prison. - See more at: http://www.hrp.org.uk/TowerOfLondon/stories/buildinghistory/#sthash.DTaCQMLQ.dpuf